... A review of plant-use with respect to the woody species encountered at Manzengwenya plantation was conducted which defined two primary use-categories. There are five distinct types of agroforestry: • Silvopastoral: … de Foresta H and Michon G (1996) Tree improvement research for agroforestry: a note of caution. These landscapes differ in both the type of farms (though most are dairy farms) and the type of hedgerow. Agrofor Syst 22: 181–206, Grigg DB (1974) The Agricultural Systems of the World: An Evolutionary Approach. The study highlighted forest degradation, droughts, building of reservoirs and over-grazing as the main factors causing land degradation in the study areas. Learning from 3.5 billion years of experience 4. potential (which will be referred to as land use categories); group of components is followed by another). Science 111: 23–29, Williams PA, Gordon AM, Garrett HE and Buck L (1997) Agroforestry in North America and, its role in farming systems. Five of these practices (multi-, layered tree gardens, chena shifting cultivation, contour hedgerows, and, intercropping and use of multipurpose trees in tree-crop plantations) were of. 5, No. This study aims to characterize clove based cropping systems. However, before recommending these RAS, additional research is needed to better characterize the impact of these systems in particular on crop yield and soil biodiversity quality. Differences in hedgerow, Population growth and resulting land use changes are becoming increasingly important factors in forest management and fire planning as forests are converted to residential and other developed uses. Based on Lately, the A National Report. 5. improve the well-being of coffee-producing communities. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Sibbald AR, Griffiths JH and Elston DA (1991) The effects of the presence of widely spaced, conifers on under-storey herbage production in the UK. There is little mechanistic understanding relating how context conditions the diversity and abundance of regenerating trees and how this in turn is related to ecosystem function and livelihood benefits. Clearly this scheme (Figure 4) splits agroforestry up into a series of major, types on the basis of both ecological and management criteria. -agroforestry practices and arrangements can be considered as either . practices for the purposes of defining research and extension needs. The agroforestry strategic framework (PDF, 562 KB) is a roadmap for agroforestry services USDA provides to landowners through its conservation programs. 1) Agroforestry is any sustainable land-use system that maintains or increases total yields by combining food crops (annuals) with tree crops (perennials) and/or livestock on the same unit of land, either alternately or at the same time, using management practices that suit the social and cultural characteristics of the local … Urban landscapes were separated on the base of analysis of land use, applying the division of Tiutiunnik (1991). Due to the presence of trees on farmed lands, agroforestry systems … Seven types of agroforestry systems were identified with 20 species of fruit trees, 14 species of timber trees and 6 species of pluri annual local crops. within particular parts of a farm business. The new database design was implemented in dBASE IV as a set of con-, trolling files, look up tables and a user interface (Sinclair et al., 1991). approach, resulting in a two stage definition: The approach is interdisciplinary and combines the consideration of woody, perennials, herbaceous plants, livestock and people, and their interactions, with one another in farming and forest systems. and branches collected, piled and burnt on the plot). They are as. School of Agricultural and Forest Sciences, University of Wales, Bangor, Sinclair FL, Foster AS, Jenkins TAR and Waugh A (1991) The Global Database of Agroforestry, Practices. important to distinguish agroforestry from traditional disciplines of agronomy, forestry and livestock production (Garrett et al., 1994). Simultaneous practices, in which trees and other crops are grown at the same time -the type of interactions desired generally influence the arrangement of trees and crops in space . best to meet the objectives of local stakeholders (which may include farmers, forest users, other users of the countryside or people affected by how land is, used). Factors that. A systematic literature review was also employed to identify, select and critically review the current information on socio-economic contributions of aromatic resins in the Horn of Africa. Current Policy Measures to Promote Agroforestry across Europe’, AGFORWARD WP8, Available online https: ... agroforestry-1.pdf xxiLuske, B et al. Part 2: Case study on the impact of explicit, representation of farmers’ knowledge. The key point is how. Figure : Complementary, supplementary and competitive interactions between agroforestry components (Torquebiau, 1994) Interactions based on components Woody perennials (trees) are important of all agroforestry systems. Examples of this type are alley cropping (hedgerow intercropping), contour Spedding (1979) captures this in writing about agricultural, systems in his definition of a system as ‘, operating together for a common purpose, capable of reacting as a whole to, external stimuli: it is unaffected directly by its own outputs and has a, specified boundary based on the inclusion of all significant feedbacks, definition is scale-neutral and can be applied at different hierarchical levels, to, for example, a plant, a crop stand, a farm or a planet, all of which may, be legitimately identified as systems, and what is appropriately seen as a, system itself at one level may be a component of a larger system at a higher, level. Agroforestry practices in general will help to maintain the wellbeing of societies at all levels . important relative to interactions between the tree and crop components. The chitemene plots, therefore, form a temporal group with the fallow phase of the shifting culti-, vation cycle (Figure 2b), a common phenomenon. Classification of agroforestry (AF) systems is necessary in order to provide a framework for evaluating systems and developing action plans for their improvement. 2. The, set of seven controlling files contained a common set of key fields enabling, relational database retrieval at system and practice level with the individual, files storing general data about the agroforestry practices, land use categories, and farming systems and for each practice the types of components involved, (trees, crops and animals), the species used and their vertical and horizontal, The scheme for classification and description of agroforestry employed in, the new implementation, and as described below, was used to enumerate, systems documented in the original AFSI inventory and then further tested, and refined by enumerating temperate systems and using the scheme with, international student groups studying agroforestry at the University of W, Bangor between 1991 and 1995 (this involved over a hundred students from, more than thirty countries). There are three types of coexisting clove systems: monoculture where clove is the sole crop with inter-rows covered by wild grasses, agricultural parklands where clove is associated with annual crops (rain fed rice, sugar cane, cassava) and finally complex agroforestry systems where clove is associated with other crops (vanilla), fruit trees (lychees, breadfruit, jackfruit) and pepper vines, as well as some forest trees. Types of agroforestry practices Lafia North Lafia South Lafia West Lafia East Respondents Percentage Row/hedges 11 8 6 5 30 25 Trees on farm land 2 4 6 7 19 15.8 Scattered trees on farmland 13 10 16 14 53 44.2 Expected results included: Development and validation of cost effective methodologies to quantify and value biodiversity and other environmental services from coffee agroforestry systems; Recommendations for economically viable and biodiversity-friendly coffee cultivation practices tailored with respect to specific social and environmental issues in each of the three regions; Recommendations for NGOs and the private coffee sector to improve implementation of market based approaches promoting environmentally and biodiversity-friendly coffee cultivation practices; Policy recommendations for governmental and international agencies detailing regulatory actions and institutional support required to promote biodiversity-friendly coffee cultivation practices and development of decision support tools for evaluating policy options. communication and the organized storage of information. Planting should be carried … and only 21% information on soil drainage). Agroforestry is a land-use management system in which trees and shrubs are grown either on arable land along with crops or on pastureland. new agroforestry guide for Ghana, achieved as a result of a collaboration between the University of Ghana, Legon, and the Pro-Natura International Ghana team, under the leadership of M. Wilfrid Pineau, is now completed and ready for distribution. Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration (FMNR) comprises a set of practices used by farmers to encourage the growth of native trees on agricultural land. Agric Syst 24: 95–117. forest farming) aiming at promoting understory production (i.e. 3. agriculture on the same land. Common grazing or forest areas, while accessed by farmers, may be. It is important not to restrict agroforestry practice to the integration of woody, and non-woody components, since some plants generally labeled as agricul-, tural crops are themselves woody, particularly the plantation tree crops such, the integration of timber and/or shade trees amongst productive tree-crops. It is widely promoted in Africa as a cost-effective way of restoring degraded land, that overcomes the challenge of low survival rates associated with tree planting in arid and semi-arid areas. Indeed, precedents can be found in the agroforestry literature for this sort of, analysis. Inventory (AFSI) database. As natural forests are cleared for agriculture and other types of development, the benefits that trees provide are best sustained by integrating … A two stage definition of agroforestry is proposed that, distinguishes an interdisciplinary approach to land use from a set of integrated land use, practices.