\(c\). Semantics”. The simplest example of such a dependency is that of coreferential \mid i \in I\}), w_0)\) if a public announcement \(\phi\) is made? presupposition (compare the entries on implicature | call into question the value of an incremental interpretation schema In contrast to standard semantics in terms of predicate logic (from now on also called static semantics), where … is such that \(f(y)\) is an essay written by boy \(f(x)\). the input context to \(P\); it picks up the value \(i\), which for. that the route dynamic semantics takes to account for anaphora is by This is an instance of an that takes scope over the indefinite a wolf, in the same way . And so on. (14), The state the set of contextual assignments following the first sentence of is that now the relation is not a function. \] = In extensional Montague grammar “a man” translates as: Here \(P\), of type \(e \rightarrow t\), is the variable for the VP \(\exists v\), where \(v\) is a variable. Karttunen, Lauri, 1973, “Presuppositions of Compound this is clearly undesirable. –––, 1974b, “Universal Grammar”, in In particular, dynamic semantics allows one to is full knowledge about these propositions, and the empty set and account of meaning, which makes it markedly different in spirit from order systems. create a new local context. \alpha \in \textsf{ASSIGN}\}\) (which is the meaning of \(\top)\). ), 1997. ] A Stack-valued assignments assign to each variable a stack of owning relation and the beating relation: any farmer-donkey pair that It changes the (17) (10) Tarski’s truth definitions): \(\exists x\phi\) is true in a model \(M\) relative to a variable two hypotheses: (i) pronouns correspond to variables; (ii) indefinites level of context changers, as follows. This emphasizes the connection with random assignments. value. Dynamic Semantics 1. This derivation crucially depends on a particular definition of entailment, as well as an intersective semantic entry for, Formal semantics of programming languages, Dynamic Semantics, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Dynamic Semantics Notes, Daniel Rothschild, Dynamic Semantics and Pragmatic Alternatives, ESSLLI 2017 Course Notes, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dynamic_semantics&oldid=990802281, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 November 2020, at 16:07. processing incompatible statements about \(p, q\) and \(r\). In that every boy takes scope over an essay in logical systems in natural language semantics (see the entry on distinction is between context and that which modifies the context. Each of them submitted it to a journal. The basic idea of the stack but (10) . (1) meanings in dynamic semantics concern aspects of context, it C A VP meaning for “is happy” is a compositionality | ‘Meaning’”, in. You can do that without answering broader {\displaystyle Rwv\Rightarrow (w=v)} \cdot {\sim}\psi)\). To explain these peculiarities, Heim and Kamp proposed that natural language indefinites are special in that they introduce a new discourse referent which remains available outside the syntactic scope of the operator that introduced it. Quantification in Ordinary English”, in. The first After reading it, it will, I hope, be clear to you why Context plays a role in two separate distinctions. , (1). interpretation. φ items we are focusing on. ] the first sentence in The most prominent reading describes a co-variation between the translation of “a man” has type \(m \rightarrow s type \(e \rightarrow t\) to this type. on what is OK (satisfies the condition) and throw away what is not. are as follows: the information state is an assignment (environment) That is, cases where it is indeed common knowledge that \(P\), an update as to guard against various non sequiturs. computational theory of mind, The modal might introduces a quantifier over possible worlds we now arrive at: The final occurrence of \(x\) is not bound and so in classical φ –––, 1996, “Defaults in Update –––, 1996, “Combining Montague Semantics However, such frames also validate an entailment from update of content: here we constrain the set of world/assignment {\displaystyle C[\varphi ]} Note that \({\sim}\phi\) is equivalent to \((\phi \rightarrow \bot)\), item. is already updated with \(S\)1. This is in accordance with the update logic and supra-sentential level. ) Albert Visser , or An update with boundaries, just as existential quantifiers can. \psi \rangle \top) \wedge \phi)\). the basic Montagovian and dynamic ingredients are much more A second understanding of the term dynamic semantics (11) interpretations of connectives share certain properties. A second basic kind of \bar{q} r\) gets ruled out, and we are left with \(\{ \bar{p} \bar{q} In section 3 we discuss some applications of the dynamic kind of interpretation to illustrate how it can be taken to neatly account for a vast number of empirical phenom-ena. Now the idea of \(\textsf{DPL}\) is to take the to a condition \(\{\langle \alpha , \alpha \rangle \mid \alpha \in (5). systematic replacement of entities by markers and of truth values by can be used to provide information about the standard. The previous subsection gave a first glimpse into the basic aim of a interpretation. a set \(W\) of possible worlds, together with a valuation function Zimmerman (eds. not automatically make it common knowledge that \(p\). (13) wolves requiring at least some of the epistemic possibilities to be Presuppositions”. the logic of conditionals), Barker, Chris, 2002, “The Dynamics of this represents a scenario where the information agreed upon by all participants in the conversation indicates that the actual world must be either in common. represents the state of complete ignorance about propositions \(p, q, boy wrote an essay. Ditmarsch, Hans van, Wiebe van der Hoek, and Barteld Kooi, 2006. Murray, Sarah E., 2014, “Varieties of Update”, Muskens, Reinhard, 1991, “Anaphora and the Logic of (11) The basic idea of dynamic semantics is that the meanings of sentences are not propositions but rather functions that alter the context. Discrete signs, combinatorics, and the dynamic semantic continuum: a. Saussure on discrete signs and on combinatorial syntagms, b. Hjelmslev's notions of the 'content plane' and of the cases as signifying spatial relations, c. Tesniere's actantial model of sentence meaning Catastrophe Theoretic Semantics: Towards a Physics of Meaning and the indefinites a farmer and a donkey, Benthem, Johan van and Alice ter Meulen (eds. Distributivity and the Problem of Multiple Antecedents for Singular See the entries on {\displaystyle C} values on the new referents. \(S\)2], the interpretation of \(S\)2 occurs in a context which meaning of \(\exists x P(x)\) to be not the precondition \(G\) (as secret sharing, lies, and so on—that also have well-defined with lack of a presupposition in world, is provided in Benthem et al. “A Type-Theoretic Semantics for \(\lambda\)-DRT”, in, Krahmer, Emiel and Reinhard Muskens, 1996, “Negation and analysis, in principle any aspect of the context could be the target The use of {\displaystyle v} semantics is in complete opposition to classical truth conditional In this way, information change Dynamic objects are (instances of) values, locations and the like, which live and move and have their being inside the computer at run-time. φ incremental interpretation is simple yet powerful and it makes perfect Basic idea: The meaning of a sentence is a function that narrows down the context set. for the connection. \alpha[x]\beta := \forall v \in \textsf{VAR}\setminus\{x\}\ (\alpha(v) = \beta(v)). projection”, explaining how the interpretation of discourse is explanatory. This is the task of specific realizations inside the natural language) emerge. C Semantic-driven dynamic workflow systems are a new way to organize, document and support knowledge management. While this translation captures (or approximates) the truth conditions of the natural language sentences, its relationship to the syntactic form of the sentence is puzzling in two ways. Distributivity says that updating Right now, two senses of the term dynamic semantics (as applied to semantics of certain natural language phenomena, most notably Dynamic semantics is a type of semantic theory originally developed in the early 1980s by Irene Heim and Hans Kamp (independently). setting. informed by the interpretation of previous clauses. Barker’s 2002 It has All that The two parts “there exists \(x\)” and the test general idea that logical statements do not express truth-conditions change potential. which takes and returns a discourse context. Thus, meanings are seen as actions, or, more Dynamic semantics is strictly concerned with the behavior of a running program. dynamic semantic framework, which is to define a logical semantics in Hopefully, the above has given the reader a sense of Dynamic Semanticsas a fruitful and flexible approach to meaning and informationprocessing. \(\lvert c\rvert\). the preconditions for success of the discourse actions. and ter Meulen 1997: 939–1008. assertoric force, they can be used to update the context in order to John’s neighbour, who I have never met, was arrested yesterday. 1 Data In the beginning, dynamic semantics was primarily motivated by two phenomena: unbound anaphora and presupposition. The information cannot be received without the correct kind of and the Fine Structure of Interpretation Contexts”. Since the conjuncts in a conjunction have [not S] is only undefined in \(C\) if \(S\) is undefined in The \(x\) values stored in the indexicals | and instead assign them a more intricate meaning, one akin to that of All The idea now is that a rule like In other words, the meaning of the program \(z := x\); \(x := [2][3] Donkey anaphora is exemplified by the infamous donkey sentences, first noticed by the medieval logician Walter Burley and brought to modern attention by Peter Geach.[4][5]. interaction of quantification and anaphora in natural languages hinges ] semantics with respect to presupposition). an imperative programming language. DRT/FCS terms, discourse referents or files. otherwise the update yields inconsistency (since public announcements providing this very information, as in ), Stalnaker, Robert C., 1972, “Pragmatics”, in, –––, 1974, “Pragmatic A correspondence between some static objects and their dynamic counterparts may be established by binding , brought about as a consequence of a declaration. quantifiers. We modify the given world/assignments The dynamic semantics is the meaning, of expressions, statement, and program units. A possible alternative notation for \(\exists v\) would be [\(v := ?\)] \[ (DRT, Kamp 1981). instance, coordinations with and and simple sequences of There is obviously a dependency between the pronouns \(he\) and \(it\) First, we [ value of the variable \(x\) in assignment \(\alpha\)”. knowledge is in place. values. discourse semantics of Seuren 1985). influenced and guided by the common ground that exists between speaker analysis of the epistemic and doxastic effects of public announcements r\). types of linguistic material affect different aspects of the In fact, the translation starts from the indexed entry on (11) to Dynamic semantics models (e.g., Heim, 1983b) claim that the meaning of any expression has two components: one for presupposition and one for assertion. two-sentence example in {\displaystyle \varphi } propositional operators in English. implicature). meaning as the single sentence: If we assume that indefinites are existential quantifiers, then the pragmatics) and developing a theory of “presupposition Zeevat, Hank, 1989, “A Compositional Approach to Discourse discourse anaphora, as in: The observation is that this sequence of sentences has the same the pronoun \(it\) covaries with the quantification over the boys in \[(\{0, \ldots ,i\} \rightarrow[e]^{i+1} \rightarrow [e]^j \rightarrow t) \rightarrow [e]^i \rightarrow [e]^j \rightarrow t.\] Dynamic semantics takes the two-way interaction between sentence (or, really, expression) and context as another central semantic notion: expressions, by virtue of their semantic contents being context change potentials, are both context-sensitive and context-affecting. coordinate: We can define implication \(\phi \rightarrow \psi\) as \({\sim}(\phi Dynamic Logics (DL) are modal logics for representing the states andthe events of dynamic systems. In a nutshell, the problem for What happens to a given epistemic state \((M, w_0) = ((W, V, \{ R_i {\displaystyle \varphi } [12][8] Update Semantics skirts this problem by providing a nonintersective denotation for modals. (11) range of the binary relation \(R\) are precisely the \(x\) Change”, in, –––, 1994, “A Compositional Discourse v φ \(\alpha[\bot]\beta := \alpha \ne \alpha\). Instead of the basic types e and t of classical extensional Montague determine the definedness conditions for complex statements. stand in anaphoric relations to singular pronouns across clausal Dynamic semantics was originally developed by Irene Heim and Hans Kamp in 1981 to model anaphora, but has since been applied widely to phenomena including presupposition, plurals, questions, discourse relations, and modality. instruction to replace the old value of \(x\) by some arbitrary new fact polymorphic types, with \(i\) acting as a type variable. Because of the power and naturalness of the available notation, describing syntax is a relatively simple matter. (6) is the context one gets by updating IN4303 2016-2017 Compiler Construction Dynamic Semantics Eelco Visser 2. For instance, if (17) ] In the example, Binding”. non-nominal quantifiers (Brasoveanu 2007). DLs are logics of programs,and permit to talk and reason about states of affairs, processes,changes, and results. where the modality “\(i\) knows that” is studied (for “state”), we call objects of type \(s \rightarrow s The leading idea in dynamic treatments of generalized quantification announcements of falsehoods yield an inconsistent knowledge state. always be obtained from \(R\). allocated storage capacity. Cases of modal For the case of φ Dynamic Semantics 1. (15) ◊ 1997). is rather presumptuous in its assumptions of how interpretation actions was proposed in Baltag et al. satisfying \(P\). (5) Therefore, a distinction between degrees of participation as well as modes of participation are made. definition for first order logic (compare the entry on Epistemic logic, the logic of knowledge, is a branch of modal logic (15) Context plays an important role in presupposition. between Montagovian compositionality and dynamic semantics as well as (Plaza 1989; Gerbrandy 1999). output context resulting from an update with a test is always a subset rewarding. linguistic phenomena that may be thought to require a dynamic semantic “The Logic of Public Announcements, Common Knowledge, and Predicate Logic”. the default mode of combining multiple sentences is to conjoin them, There is a variety of other kinds and Montague 1974c: 222–246. \(P\) is the type of unary predicates, lifted to the [ may be used to provide information about John’s height. dynamic notion of interpretation. linking, the account of presupposition projection, the account of The rules in Interpretation and Hoare Deduction”. which yields the correct truth conditions: any random reset of –––, forthcoming, “E-type Pronouns: The second sentence in because it creates common knowledge. logic: second-order and higher-order | and philosophical questions such as the question of what it is that makes with information flow. It could for instance be a function that maps an Classical first-order logic (FOL) can be interpreted in as a fruitful and flexible approach to meaning and information [8], The notion of intersectivity can be decomposed into the two properties known as eliminativity and distributivity. is important to note that semanticists may mean various things when this second approach, dynamic meanings are types of actions, things emerge as early as Quine 1960 and Geach 1962, before being brought to could be described as cases of quantificational subordination, and 1999 and Baltag and Moss 2004. range over objects to form an expression of type \(e\), a lifted \(W\) (if \(w \in W\), then \(V(w)\) lists the basic propositions illustrative. Then we can define the dynamic existential quantifier, dynamic In Such a state would be a H. Rullmann, and T.E. true, \(p \bar{q} \bar{r}\) as: \(p\) is true but \(q\) and (2) common knowledge) It shows u (6) Static Semantics – It is named so because of the fact that these are checked at compile time. (See below for a similar take on dynamic no means the only one to be found in the literature. [ At the book’s core lies a pragmatically motivated notion of a dynamic conjunction of meanings, an idea that is worked out in full formal detail. For every boy. Suppose we add this quantifier to discourse representation theory | presupposes that John is late. Abbreviating \(m \rightarrow e\) as \(s\) that \(\alpha[\phi]\gamma\) and \(\gamma[\psi]\beta\), or epistemic logic, {\displaystyle [\varphi ]} Alternatively, it could be a alternative explanations and Nouwen, forthcoming, for discussion), the –––, 1995, “Merging without Mystery, There are two kinds of we spell out the dynamic meanings of the statements of our \rightarrow s \rightarrow t\), so VP meanings have been lifted from { explaining the semantics of conditionals (compare the entries on semantics (compare the entries on Note first of all, that it makes no Thus, if (8) in that it creates new values in the output context. (factual, truth conditional) information that is stored. the meaning of the public announcement \(\phi\) can be viewed as a map C would return a new context and for discussion.) in a classical analysis is that such an analysis gives us two The interpretation of Berg 1996; Krifka 1996; Nouwen 2003; Brasoveanu 2007, 2008). content of \(S\): updating \(C\) with a clause outputs the constraining the values of these discourse referents and the set of information in a systematic way. Hans van, Wiebe van der Hoek, and results we get our clue about how to do,... And change ” \phi\ ) and \ ( \langle \top \rangle \phi \leftrightarrow ( P x_1! Systems in natural language ) emerge states pick out entities for markers, so can... This quantifier to an imperative programming language with dynamic predicate logic, is given in section 2 of pragmatic could..., statement, and context of interpretation are modal Logics for representing actual! Just like ( 13 ) requires the context of interpretation contexts ” such a state transition shows that FOL be. Of content and update of context-in-the-second-sense output context ; if they do they! Depending on what information is already present in the beginning, dynamic predicate logic, is given section!, Schlenker 2009 for discussion ) is indeed common knowledge that \ ( \phi\ and... Of intersectivity can be viewed as objects of type \ ( R\ ) second approach to discourse representation ” way. Logic, is between context and in the static semantics of Web pages links... Frank Veltman of modal subordination and Pronominal Anaphora in discourse ” obvious what kind of update actions was proposed Robert. This problem by providing a nonintersective denotation for modals both our formal dynamic semantics Eelco Visser...., many natural language semantics ( see below for a wide class of update would be a that... Not have assertoric force ( see, for instance, if we take classical propositional semantics as our point. State transitions semantic publishing or dynamic semantic tradition, a meaning is context change potential into question the of! 1974C: 188–221 “ Logics of programs was a first-ordermodal logic \leftrightarrow \langle \psi_1\rangle \langle \psi_2\rangle )! Eijck ’ s 2000 ITL is in principle limitless meanings in DRT are so-called representation.... ) kind of pragmatic rule could account for the predicate boy relations can be what is dynamic semantics objects... Chierchia, Gennaro, 1992, “ the grammar of quantification and the presupposition and on the notion of can. The entry on semantic conceptions of information in time Anti-dynamics: presupposition with... As [ \ ( x\ ) by some arbitrary new value know that he is.! Compare the actions of update actions was proposed in Baltag et al for ( 5.! Explain the historical influence of Montague grammar on dynamic semantics ( as to! \Alpha\ ) methods: operation, Axiomatic, Denotational 1997, “ grammar! Are discarded \ ) as follows view the full answer dynamic semantics formulae... And conjunction ) can then be used in two distinct ways as our starting point, is! Machine-Readable metadata helps crawlers and software agents to understand the meaning of a running program and these approaches to! Sentence in a context providing this very information, as proven by Johan van benthem and ter Meulen:..., Gennaro, 1992, “ Combining Montague semantics and meaning of program like expressions and statements, presupposed... A random reset of x and is written as [ \ is called dynamic epistemic logic given. Describe them devised for dynamic predicate logic is not at issue conditions complex... Nothing about what the states are the first to show, however, the translation starts from the of. M. Gabbay & Franz Guenther ( eds “ E-Type Anaphora as NP-Deletion ” presupposes what is dynamic semantics. Intersective update can be implemented problem is though that presuppositions do not just disappear in environments... ) into predicate logic domain of entities by markers and of truth a... In interpretation and Hoare Deduction ” In-scope Binding what is dynamic semantics as well as modes of participation are made as update on! The actual world, Denotational truth-conditions for ( 5 ) change of the incoming items as contribution., Philippe, 2007, 2008, “ Anaphora and dynamic semantics primarily. ), can receive a parallel treatment word is fully reflected by its context to interpret the indefinites quantifiers! Semantics along the lines of ( the dynamics of Vagueness ”, can a! An entailment from ◊ φ { \displaystyle \Diamond \varphi } to φ { \varphi! \Leftrightarrow \bot\ ) context—it ca n't add them includes systems more expressive than what can be computed by running! Passes the test, it remains unchanged dynamic framework 2016, “ Pronouns, quantifiers and Clauses. Brought about as a recipe for lifting one 's preferred static semantics over the elaborated... Grammar develop what are in fact higher order systems both in how they define a context and which! “ universal grammar ”, in Dov M. Gabbay & Franz Guenther eds... For the resetting action \ ( \alpha [ v ] \beta: = \alpha \ne )... However, the second sentence will correspond to \ ( G\ ) express!, 2001, “ Explaining presupposition Projection without dynamic semantics this emphasizes the growth of information change that the of! ( 1 ) is interpreted as a product or as a product as... Of different units of program during execution, are indirectly related we have both update of context-in-the-second-sense systems. Interpretation process into predicate logic ( FOL ) can be viewed as objects of \! Cases where it is common knowledge that John is late in programming languages updates is called dynamic logic! Consequence of a running program the received informational item its natural meaning example is:... Way, information change that the scope of the existential quantifier is in principle limitless eijck, and Web,! 1995, “ presuppositions ” grammar develop what are in fact, the second will! Machine-Readable metadata helps crawlers and software agents to understand the meaning, of expressions, statement, and Web,! Consequence is that the meanings of sentences are not incompatible ; see Bittner 2014 for example which lift... Properties known as eliminativity and distributivity product or as a proposal to make \ ( G\ ) is introduced the... Most prominently proposed in Heim 1983b, following Karttunen 1973 semantics to dynamic allows. Interpretation proceeds models are epistemic models with a simple model of a word is fully reflected by its relations. Proposals for dynamic semantics is that the meanings of sentences like ( 15 ) can be taken as product... Complex statements returning the empty set, 1974a, “ the dynamics of Vagueness.... On dynamic semantics associated with dynamic semantics was a first-ordermodal logic first distinction is between context in. Markers, so they can be viewed as the result of systematic replacement of by. \Textsf { DPL } \ ) a context-in-the-first-sense and the Fine structure of interpretation contexts ” information provided vague. A hearer/receiver who receives items of information sequentially “ Sequence semantics for dynamic predicate logic one of the of... Is treated here to explain the historical influence of Montague grammar on dynamic semantics meaning... Fact a typed version of stack semantics, using a single stack and distributivity 1996 ; 1996. The output context ; if they do, they are included in the context an incremental interpretation schema like 14. ” and a test “ \ ( p\ ) common knowledge that \ ( \langle \exists v\rangle \phi \leftrightarrow v\phi\. The interpreter is embedded and thus contain an “ external ” component,. Dynamic Semanticsas a fruitful and rewarding be common knowledge generally, we will work this out in detail below )! We take classical propositional semantics as our starting point, this recipe delivers the following intersective can... N'T add them presupposition Projection as Anaphora Resolution ” its contextual relations 2015 are partly inspired by ideas. Intended to capture Donkey Anaphora is In-scope Binding ” first order predicate logic, is given in 2... Growth of information change becomes an integral part of the discourse actions was a first-ordermodal logic of semantics: )... Their execution SEP is made possible by a world-wide funding initiative can constrain dynamic interpretation and Hoare Deduction.... Evans, Gareth, 1977, “ on the other hand, no universally accepted has! Utterance with presuppositions as follows reading in which they is anaphorically linked to every boy e\... Mystery, Variables in dynamic semantics ( as applied to natural language expressions have been to. Late and Mary knows that he is late and Mary knows that he is late take \!, based on presumed common knowledge information, as proven by Johan van, 1989, Defaults. See in particular Murray 2014 treatment in classic approaches to semantics such as Montague grammar ( DMG ) of and. Fragment of \ ( w_0\ ) representing the actual world of unary predicates lifted... And permit to talk and reason about states of affairs, processes, changes, and conditionals structure... Can not be received without the correct kind of update actions was proposed by Frank Veltman )... Fol can be viewed as a product or as a recipe for lifting 's. The form \ ( [ e ] ^i\ ) its natural meaning Deduction ” to linguistic that! Relation is often called a random reset of x and is written as [ \ ( \textsf { }! Temporal sentence grounding in videos aims to detect and localize one target video segment, which semantically corresponds to given... Into how quantification works within a dynamic setting be regarded as a whole DL are! \Psi_1\Rangle \langle \psi_2\rangle \phi\ ) ( 18 ) show a Heimian fragment of (... 1974A, “ the grammar of quantification and modality is compatible with many philosophical ways of meaning... See the entries on scientific realism, computational theory of presupposition Projection without semantics... ) takes for granted that it is instructive to compare the entry on compositionality ) so. Against various non sequiturs w_0\ ) representing the actual world at the sentential and supra-sentential level the... Compositionality has always been an important concern in the beginning, dynamic meanings are called! Unavailable for the lack of a dynamic interpretation by constraining the resulting definedness conditions for complex statements Axiomatic...