It produced the Arabelle units at AEM's newly-acquired Atommash plant at Volgodonsk for delivery in 2015. Refuelling is every 10-12 years. In the 1990s capacity factors averaged around 60%, but they have steadily improved since and in 2010, 2011 and 2014 were above 81%. See also R&D section in the information paper on Russia's Nuclear Fuel Cycle. There is already some transmission capacity east through Lithuania and Belarus to the St Petersburg region if that were added to the options. This is a development of the VVER-1300A, but with three loops, using steam generators and circulation pumps from it, and reactor pressure vessel and internals from VVER-1500, which it supercedes. The BN-1200 will produce 2900 MWt (1220 MWe gross), has a 60-year design operating lifetime, simplified refuelling, and burn-up of up to 120 GWd/t, with breeding ratio quoted as 1.2 to 1.4, using oxide or nitride fuels. In November 2009, the government's Energy Strategy 2030 was published, projecting investments for the next two decades. As enrichment and erbium content are increased (eg from 2.4 or 2.6% to 2.8% average enrichment and 0.6% erbium), increased burn-up is possible and the fuel can stay in the reactor six years. International Panel on Fissile Materials, Construction of Russia's BN-1200 fast-neutron reactor delayed until 2030s, 20 August 2019, © 2016-2020 World Nuclear Association, registered in England and Wales, number 01215741. The plant is on one of the main hubs of the Russian grid. , The VVER-1200 pressurised water reactor is the system currently offered for construction, being an evolution of the VVER-1000 with increased power output to about 1200 MWe (gross) and providing additional passive safety features. Georgians of the Russian Orthodox faith pray in church on September 3, 2008 in Tbilisi . In April 2015 Rosenergoatom said that construction decision would be delayed to at least 2020, as it wanted to improve the fuel and review the economic viability of the project. It consists of a steel cylinder with double walls, 7m diameter, with the space between them filled with specially formulated concrete. China: When China called for competitive bids for four large third-generation reactors to be built at Sanmen and Yangjiang, ASE unsuccessfully bid the AES-92 power plant for these. (LMZ high-speed turbine generators had initially been approved.). Lithuania was invited to consider the prospect, instead of building Visaginas as a Baltic states plus Poland project, but declined. See Floating nuclear power plants subsection above. And by this fact, Russia has cemented its primacy in the region and shut out the United States. Previous annealing of units 1&2 had been undertaken in 1989, followed by further major works over 1991 to 2005, costing $718 million. It acquired some of RAO UES assets when that company was broken up in 2008 and it now controls about 18 GWe in Russia and Armenia. Expenditure to January 2012 was RUR 7.25 billion ($241 million), and that in 2012 was expected to be RUR 7 billion. Core catchers filled with non-metallic materials are under the pressure vessel. Kalinin units 1-3 are quoted at 1075 MWe gross after uprate, and unit 4 started pilot commercial operation at 104% of rated power in February 2015, with 40 MWe increase. The Seven Commandments also mirror the communism manifesto . Leningrad unit 1 was shut down in May 2012 due to deformation of the graphite moderator, and after a RUR 5 billion ($146 million) restoration of the graphite stack as the pioneer lifetime performance recovery (LPR) procedure it was restarted in November 2013. Critics say that these reactors are of an "inherently unsafe design", which cannot be improved through upgrades and modernization, and some reactor parts are impossible to replace. Grigory Ponomarenko, OKB “GIDROPRESS”, Present and Future of WWER Technology, presented at the IAEA Technical Meeting on Technology Assessment for New Nuclear Power Programmes, held in Vienna, Austria on 1-3 September 2015
In February 2008 ASE formed an alliance with TechnoPromExport (TPE), an exporter of all other large-scale power generation types. It started up late in 2017, was grid connected in February 2018 and entered commercial operation in September 2018. That's what we have to find out.” The Beloyarsk plant director said: “The main objective of the BN-800 is [to provide] operating experience and technological solutions that will be applied to the BN-1200.”. About 100 t/yr of fission product waste would go to a geological repository. They are designed to replace the oldest two Leningrad units. The cost of further uprates beyond 104% is expected to be up to $570/kW, depending on what needs to be replaced – the turbine generators being the main items. Financing will be a significant consideration. Design was expected to be complete in 2007, but the project was shelved in 2006. In March 2013 SPbAEP (merged with VNIPIET to become Atomproekt) said that subject to Rosatom approval it could have a VVER-640 project ready to go possibly at the Kola site by the end of 2014. Final cost was RUR 7 billion ($220 million) under budget – about 10%. The BN-600 reactor at Beloyarsk has operated successfully since 1980 and is now licensed to 2020, with planned operation to 2025. In mid-2010 the projected annual electricity demand growth to 2020 was put at 2.2%. The polar crane was delivered in August 2014. They have passive decay heat removal by air circulation. Unit 1 achieved first criticality in February 2018, and was grid connected in March, with Rostechnadzor approving commercial operation by October 2018. Moscow Atomenergoproekt is the architect-engineer. The FTP is based on VVER technology at least to the 2030s. The long preparatory period with a year’s delay before return to criticality in mid-2015 was due to a technical issue with the fuel assemblies, which had to be redesigned when it became clear that not enough MOX fuel would be available for an initial core load. This was hailed by Mr Putin as a long-term strategic partnership. was subject to a series of Soviet constitutions (1918, 1924, 1936, 1977), under which it nominally was a sovereign socialist state within (after 1936) a federal structure. BREST and BN-1200 are described below under Reactor Technology. SPb AEP (merged with VNIPIET to become Atomproekt) is the general designer. Power in The Russian Civil War (1918-1921) Primary Researcher: Kelsey Settle Secondary Researcher: Aaron Donald Scribe: Lily Weiss Image Designer: Kristen Neihouse Extra Help, Mainly Scribe: Kelsey Heier Background Slide-(1918-1921) Red Army (Communist) White Army (Opposed Communist) 1. The cost envisaged is RUR 440 billion ($15 billion). This project was cancelled in July 2018 on the basis of cost and in favour of pursuing SMR plans. For the VVER-1000, five years was envisaged from 2010, with enrichment levels increasing nearly by one-third (from 3.77% to 4.87%) in that time, average burn-up going up by 40% (to 57.7 GWd/t) and operating costs dropping by 5%. Balakovo was the best plant in 2011 with 92.5%, and again in 2014 with 85.1%. Transmission to northern Germany would be via a new undersea cable, and in 2011 Inter RAO and Alpiq agreed to investigate an 800 MWe undersea DC link to Germany's grid. Rostov: Rostov 1 has been approved for a 4% increase in power and has been operating at this level on pilot commercial basis since January 2009. The Arktika was the first surface vessel to reach the North Pole, in 1977. Another Russian journalist who interviewed him said that Lukashenko vowed to stay in power, quoting him as saying: “I’m not gonna leave just like that. In addition, many nuclear plants will need to be used in load-following mode, and fuel which performs well under variable load conditions will be required. Rosatom reports ongoing works for long-term operation beyond 45 years. The reactor mass of twin RITM-200M units is only 2600 tonnes, compared with 3740 t for each KLT-40S. In any case most of Siemens intellectual property remained with Areva, so it would have had little to contribute to Rosatom/Atomenergoprom. Bangladesh: The Rooppur nuclear power plant originally to be two AES-92 reactors, but now evidently AES-2006 with two V-392M reactors, is to be built by Atomstroyexport (now NIAEP-ASE) for the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission. South Africa: A broad agreement with offer of finance has been signed, but the country is open to other offers as well, for 9600 MWe capacity required. (see above). In June 2016 Rostechnadzor issued a construction licence to Rosenergoatom for unit 1, and the main site works commenced later that month. In May 2015 Rosenergoatom said it had completed uprating all VVER-1000 reactors to 104% of rated power, and was starting to take them to 107% using advanced TVS-2M fuel design, starting with Balakovo 4. Docmentation for restoring lifetime performance of the graphite stack of units 3&4 is being prepared by Atomenergoproekt for Rosenergoatom over 2016-17. Late in 2006 UES raised $459 million by selling 14.4% of one of its generators, OGK-5, and since then the UES sell-off continued with investors committing to continued expansion. Planned, framework agreement June 2017, component contracts July 2017, Was due to commence construction 2015, 85% financed by loan, but contract rescinded by Ukraine in 2015. It is focused on 1000 and 1200 MWe-class VVER reactors, the former being well-proven and the latter a very credible design now operating in Russia. First new concrete for unit 4 was in June 2010. Antysheva, Tatiana, 2011, SVBR-100: New generation power plants for small and medium-sized power applications
In May 2014 the China Atomic Energy Authority (CAEA) signed an agreement with Rosatom to cooperate in construction of floating nuclear cogeneration plants for China offshore islands. The initial plan was for the existing Balakovo nuclear power plant of four 950 MWe reactors to be expanded with two more, already partly constructed* – the smelter would require a little over one-third of the output of the expanded power plant. The plant is 13.5 km from the city on the banks of Volgodonsk Tsimlyansk reservoir. Generally the VVER-440 units have got 15-year operating lifetime extensions. But by the late 1990s exports of reactors to Iran, China and India were negotiated and Russia's stalled domestic construction program was revived as far as funds allowed. According to Russia’s Energy Ministry, 5,800 Primorye residents as of Wednesday were still cut off from power, and 3,300 people in the city of Vladivostok, the region’s capital, still had no heating, the ministry said. A revised scheme in mid-2010 projected 1288 TWh demand in 2020 and 1553 TWh in 2030, requiring 78 GWe of new plant by 2020 and total 178 GWe new build by 2030, including 43.4 GWe nuclear. Kola 4 has been uprated to 107% using improved fuel assemblies on a six-year cycle and run on pilot basis but is not yet fully licensed at this level. The fuel is to be reprocessed in Russia and the separated wastes returned to the client country eventually. In mainly desalination mode the ABV-6M is expected to produce 55,000 m3/day of potable water by reverse osmosis. Chernikov, O, Rosenergoatom, Plant Units Lifetime Extension, November 2016
Rosatom planned to submit the BN-1200 to the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) as a Generation IV design. It provides heat for Zarechny town as well as electricity from three 200 MWe turbine generators. During the post-World War II era, Russia was a central player in international affairs, locked in a Cold War struggle with the United States.In 1991, following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia joined with several other former Soviet republics to form a … Starting 2020-25 it is envisaged that fast neutron power reactors will play an increasing role in Russia, with substantial recycle of fuel. The plant was omitted from the January 2015 ‘roadmap’ to 2035. ZiO-Podolsk also makes steam generators, including those for Belene/Kozloduy 7. Seversk is the site of a major enrichment plant and former weapons facilities. Further reactor details in the information paper on, Further reactor details in the information paper on, Reuse of World Nuclear Association Content, A Rosenergoatom account of the safety features, Nuclear Cogeneration Power Plants in Solution of Energy Ecological and Social Problems in Russia's Regions, SVBR-100: New generation power plants for small and medium-sized power applications, Technical Meeting on Technology Assessment for New Nuclear Power Programmes, Analysis of advanced nuclear technologies applicable in the Russian Arctic, Construction of Russia's BN-1200 fast-neutron reactor delayed until 2030s, (under development) OKBM, 325 MWe gross, based on KLT-40, Kola 3-4, Rovno 1-2, Loviisa, Paks, Dukovany, Bohunice V2, Mochovce, Cuba, based on V-213, full containment & ECCS, (under development), Gen III+, Gidropress, (under development, based on V-407), Gen III+, Gidropress, (under development by Gidropress, based on V-491), Gen III+, proposed for Kola, Baltic, most Russian & Ukraine plants, Kozloduy 5-6, Temelin 1-2, based on V-392, adapted to previous Siemens work, Bushehr 1, AES-91 Tianwan and Vietnam proposal, based on V-392, Gen III, AES-92 Kudankulam, based on V-392, Gen III, AES-92 – meets EUR standards, Armenia, Khmelnitsky 3-4, Gen III, AES-91/99 Olkiluoto bid, also Sanmen, developed from V-428, Gen III, AES-92 Belene/Kozloduy 7, Jordan?, developed from V-412 & V-466, 60-year lifetime, 1060 MWe gross, Gen III, Gidropress, AES-2006 by Moscow AEP and Gidropress, Novovoronezh; Developed from V-392 and V-412, Gen III+, 1170 MWe gross, more passive safety than V-491, developed to VVER-TOI, AES-2006 Leningrad, Baltic, Belarus, Tianwan 7&8, Ninh Thuan 1 bid; developed from AES-91 V-428 by Atomproekt and Gidropress, Gen III+, 1170 MWe gross, developed to MIR-1200 for EUR, Akkuyu version, based on Novovoronezh V-392M, Rooppur version of V-392M, Novovoronezh reference, AES-2006M, Concept proposal AES-2006, but two-loop, shelved in 2011, AES-2006M, developmental model, Gen III+, Gidropress, (concept proposal) three loops, based on 1300A and 1500, Loan organised for 90%, construction start 2013, Construction start June 2017 and October 2017, Construction start Nov 2017 and July 2018, loan organised for 90%. Gazprom gas exports to western Europe increased by 20% over 2010 to 2016, and in 2015 were 158.6 billion cubic metres. As part of ensuring the technical capability to supply power, several options for the power generation pattern of the Baltic NPP are being studied, taking into account future configuration of synchronization zones, and the Kaliningrad Oblast plans to prepare for an isolated mode of operation. In 2013 the Russian state allocated 80.6 billion rubles ($2.4 billion) toward the growth of its nuclear industry, especially export projects where Russian companies build, own and operate the power station, such as the Akkuyu Nuclear Power Plant. In December 2011 Gidropress signed a contract with the Design and Engineering Branch of Rosenergoatom for R&D related to the VVER-600 reactor, though this was not then part of any federal Rosatom program. Rosatom drew upon Gidropress, OKBM, Kurchatov Institute, Rosenergoatom, Atomstroyexport, three Atomenergoproekt outfits, VNIINPP and others. Rosatom's proposal to proceed with construction of two units was approved in November 2011. How to Say Seized power in Russian. Previously, VVER-1000 reactors operated for 12 months without refuelling and from 2008 they were all converted to an 18-month fuel cycle. In 2015 RUSAL’s plans for Balakovo and Primorye smelters were on hold. The differences are in the structure and layout of the safety systems. Rosatom has done the same for the other three units, all of which are uprated to 104% with 18-month refuel cycle. In May 2014 Rosenergoatom was completing comparative assessment of VVER-600 from Gidropress and VBER-600 from OKBM designs. Leningrad 1 was the first reactor to undergo this over 2012-13, followed by the Kursk units, and then Smolensk. In a surprise move, Russia’s government said it would resign in full just hours after Putin announced plans for a national referendum that would shift power away from a … Construction has remained stalled since then. Further reactor details in the information paper on Fast Neutron Reactors. Pashinian is widely believed to be the object of wariness in the Kremlin because he came to power through nonviolent street protests against an entrenched leadership that …  In the 1990s it took a lead role in the international GT-MHR (Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor) project based on a General Atomics (US) design. However, it appears that only six will be built domestically – two V-392M and four V-491 – before moving onto the VVER-TOI, with potential for international design certification. Construction started in 2018. A Just Russia . Turbine generators (high speed) are from Power Machines. By 2006 the government's resolve to develop nuclear power had firmed and there were projections of adding 2-3 GWe per year to 2030 in Russia as well as exporting plants to meet world demand for some 300 GWe of new nuclear capacity in that timeframe. In December 2018 Leningrad 1 was shut down, followed by unit 2 in November 2020. The new alloy was developed at Atomenergomash’s Central Research Institute for Machine Building Technology (CNIITMASH). A decision to commit to building a series was envisaged to be in 2014 when the first was expected to be near commissioning. Operational lifetime is 40 years, with possible extension to 60 years. Building and operating the BREST-OD-300 reactor, at JSC NIKIET. However, Rosenergoatom in May 2012 flagged problems with ageing of the graphite moderator, most acute at Leningrad 1, questioned proceeding with uprates of older units, and said it would consider derating individual units where problems such as pressure tube distortion were apparent due to graphite swelling. In December 2013 Roesenergoatom transferred the project from Spetsstroy to Atomenergoproekt Moscow as principal contractor, while SPb AEP/VNIPIET/Atomproekt remained architect general. In November 2008 Rosatom's share in InterRAO was increased to 57.28%. The LK-60 is too big for an easy operation around the oil and gas fields, so Project 10570 is under development with LK-40 intended for shallow water and the Arctic shelf. VVER stands for water-cooled, water-moderated energy reactor. The BN-800 achieved first criticality in June 2014, was grid-connected in December 2015, reached full power in August 2016 and entered commercial operation at the end of October. In September 2015 a pre-startup peer review was conducted for unit 1 under World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO) auspices. Rosatom sees this as a “Generation IV design with natural security” – an element of the Proryv (Breakthrough) project*, with closed fuel cycle. Learn more in the Cambridge English-Russian Dictionary. The BREST-300 lead-cooled fast reactor (Bystry Reaktor so Svintsovym Teplonositelem) is another innovation, from NIKIET, with the first unit earlier being proposed for Beloyarsk-5. In mid-2015 Rosatom announced that a new nickel-alloy steel coupled with larger (4.2m) diameter pressure vessel would mean that the VVER-TOI should have a 120-year operational life. Among other things, the BN-800 must answer questions about the economic viability of potential fast reactors ... if such a unit has more functions than to generate electricity, then it becomes economically attractive. It is from OKB Gidropress (Experimental Design Bureau Hydropress), has 30-year basic design life and dates from the 1980s. The lead units are being built at Novovoronezh II (V-392M), starting operation in 2016, and at Leningrad II (V-491) for 2017-18. Petrozavodskmash makes steam generators and had the contract for RPV and various internals for the (now abandoned) Baltic 1 reactor. The Federal Grid Company (RAO FGC) owns Russia's 118,000-km high-voltage transmission grid and planned to invest €12 billion ($14.5 billion) over 2010-13 to modernise it. Although Russian officials have not commented on the Port Sudan facility’s geopolitical significance, Russia’s construction of a Red Sea base is an important landmark in its resurgence as a great power. Russia is one of the world's largest producers of nuclear energy. Atomproekt’s Leningrad V-491 units have four trains of active safety systems, with water tanks high up in the structure to provide water cooling for decay heat, and is more suited to Finland and central Europe rather than seismic sites (DBGM is only 250 Gal). Design engineering the pilot demonstration energy/power complex (PDEC or PDPC) including nitride fuel fabrication and recycling, and developing an industrial energy complex (IEC). The basic concepts include elimination of severe reactor accidents, closing the fuel cycle, low-activity radioactive waste, non-proliferation, reduced capital cost of fast reactors, and enabling 350 GWe of Russian nuclear capacity by the end of the century. Rostechnadzor issued a construction licence for unit 1 in November 2011 and first concrete was poured on (revised) schedule in April 2012, with the base completed in December 2012. Upgrading will continue to 2018. Atomproekt’s Leningrad II with V-491 reactor is quoted as the reference plant for further units at Tianwan in China. In September 2012 Rosatom announced that a pilot demonstration BREST-300 fast reactor with associated fuel cycle facilities including dense nitride fuel fabrication would be built at the Siberian Chemical Combine in Seversk, near Tomsk. In 2016 Rosenergoatom planned to replace 150 pressure tubes in unit 2 and 50 in unit 1. In 2014 a new state program on licence extension was approved, bringing standards into line with international ones. Copy link. The system operator is the Centralized Dispatching Administration (OAO SO-CDA). contracts for buying electricity produced by plant from the western side, we could speak of continuation of construction.”. No firm dates have been given for the project, though a site development licence was expected in March 2010. Hungary: In January 2014 an agreement was signed for two reactors, apparently AES-2006, with low-interest finance to cover 80% of the cost. This better utilises uranium resources and further extends fuel life in the core. Completion and towing to the site had been expected in 2012 and grid connection in 2013, but due to insolvency of the shipyard JSC Baltijsky Zavod* and ensuing legal processes it was delayed considerably. In late 2012 Rosatom said that it plans to make available its experimental facilities for use as part of the Generation IV International Forum, including large physical test benches at Obninsk’s Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, the BOR-60 research reactor at NIIAR, and the future multifunction research reactor MBIR to be built at the NIIAR site. See also subsections: Transition to Fast Reactors, and Fast reactors in the Reactor Technology section below. The architect general will be Atomproekt, and NUKEM Technologies GmbH would be implementing the project jointly with OKBM Afrikantov which has developed the10 MWt/3 MWe design. Government of the Russian Federation, order 1 August 2016, No 1634r
OMZ subsidiary Izhorskiye Zavody is expected to produce the forgings for all new domestic AES-2006 model VVER-1200 nuclear reactors (four per year from 2016) plus exports. Ukraine: ASE was contracted to complete building Khmelnitsky 3&4, where construction started in the 1980s and ceased in 1990. The project partners – Atomenergomash, OKB Gidropress, Central Design Bureau for Marine Engineering (CDBME) of the Russian Shipbuilding Agency, OMZ’s Izhorskiye Zavody, Kurchatov Institute, and VNIPIET – “confirmed its readiness for updating aiming at commercialization.” In May 2013 Atomenergoproekt said it has already been discussing with VNIPIET the feasibility and practicability of using the VVER-640 project “as the starting point for the development of next-generation medium-power nuclear power plants, including with the use of passive safety systems.”. For 20 years, Vladimir Putin has been synonymous with Russian leadership. Rostechnadzor issued a positive site review for units 1&2 early in 2010 and a site licence with prescription for site monitoring in January 2011. In August 2013 Rostechnadzor licensed the shipyard to install the RITM-200 reactor units from OKBM Afrikantov for the pilot model. A single ABV-6M would require a 3500 tonne barge; the ABV-3, 1600 tonne. Rosatomflot expects to have Arktika commissioned in 2019 at a cost of RUR 37 billion. Kalinin 2 is expected to have a 30-year operating licence extension by 2025. Primorsk is in the far east, as is Vilyuchinsk in the Kamchatka region, and Pevek in the Chukotka Autonomous Region near Bilibino, which it will replace. Preliminary costing is RUR 240 billion ($7.38 billion). Early in 2016 Rosatom said that Russia’s GDP gained three roubles for every one rouble invested in building nuclear power plants domestically, as well as enhanced “socio-economic development of the country as a whole.”, However, early in 2017 the CEO of Rosatom said that the government would end state support for the construction of new nuclear units in 2020, and so Rosatom must learn to earn money on its own, primarily via commercial nuclear energy projects in the international market. Following this it was to consider authorizing a 5% uprate for long-term operation. The VVER-600 supercedes the VVER-640 in Gidropress plans,* and Rosatom envisages its deployment in 2020s. It is claimed to require only 130-135 tonnes of natural uranium (compared with typical 190 tU now) per gigawatt year. RUR 25 billion ($809 million) has been budgeted for the reactor and RUR 17 billion ($550 million) for the fuel cycle facilities, though it appears that only RUR 15.555 billion would come from the federal budget. Rosatom put forward two fast reactor implementation options for government decision in relation to the federal target programme (FTP) 'Advanced Nuclear Power Technologies 2010-2020'. Russia's policy for building nuclear power plants in non-nuclear weapons states is to deliver on a turnkey basis, including supply of all fuel and repatriation of used fuel for the life of the plant. Following significant design modifications made after the Chernobyl accident, as well as extensive refurbishment including replacement of fuel channels, a 45-year lifetime is seen as realistic for most of the 1000 MWe units. Arktika was launched in June 2016 and Sibr in September 2017. 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